Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever
The licensed Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide vaccines are efficacious in adults and children older than two years in endemic countries. The Vi-rEPA vaccine (which has not been commercialised) is just as efficacious, although data is only available for children. The new Vi-TT vaccine (PedaTyph) requires further evaluation to determine if it provides protection against typhoid fever. The Vi-TT vaccine (Tybar) has been approved by the World Health Organisation for used in adults and children over 6 months of age. Currently there is only efficacy data from a human challenge setting in adults but large scale randomised controlled trials are currently ongoing.
Two typhoid vaccines are commercially available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral), but neither is used routinely. Other vaccines, such as new modified, conjugated Vi vaccines called Vi-rEPA and Vi-TT, are in development. This review evaluates vaccines for preventing typhoid fever.
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