What is the evidence of the impact of initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict zones and other humanitarian crises in lower and middle-income countries?
Implementation of initiatives on the ground to address conflict and crisis related sexual violence remains very limited. However, there is some evidence to support strategies being more effective when they have multiple components, including survivor care and community engagement. Fuel provision/patrols and well-enforced programmes to prevent sexual exploitation by peacekeepers may contribute to reducing sexual violence but the risk to women can increase where court processes or other programmes are delivered with inadequate attention to protection, stigma and the risk of retaliation.
Program funders, non-government and governments globally want to learn how best to direct efforts to address this problem and whether any of the programs, guidelines and other initiatives introduced since the United Nations Security Council first recognised the impact of this problem in 2000, are having an impact. Although there is widespread recognition of the seriousness and extent of this problem, there is a yet little known about what works to prevent, reduce and redress this problem. This review assesses whether programs to address sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and disasters reduce the incidence or risk of this type of violence. Most studies that were identified described interventions for survivors in post-conflict settings; few addressed prevention or the conflict context.