Effects of dietary interventions on neonatal and infant outcomes
Food and fortified food products were effective in increasing birth weight and reducing the incidence of low birth weight. All dietary interventions and those focused on macronutrient intake also increased birth weight and length and reduced the incidence of low birth weight. Additional high-quality randomized controlled trials that test different dietary interventions are required to identify maternal diet intakes that optimize neonatal and infant outcomes.
Adequate nutrition is essential to ensuring fetal growth and birth outcomes. Diet before and during pregnancy can have effects on neonatal and infant outcomes. This review aimed to assess the effects of dietary interventions on these outcomes. All dietary interventions including macronutrient intake, effectively increased birth weight and reduced the incidence of low birth weight (also effectively improved by Food and fortified food) and length. No effects were seen for the following other outcomes: placental weight, head circumference, macrosomia, Apgar score, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, and perinatal mortality.
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